NATIONAL JOURNAL of LAW

Socialist law is the legal systems in communist states such as the former Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. Academic opinion is divided on whether it is a separate system from civil law, given major deviations based on Marxist–Leninist ideology, such as subordinating the judiciary to the executive ruling party. English common law was largely customary law and unwritten, until discovered, applied, and reported by the courts of law. In a narrow sense, common law is the phrase still used to distinguish case law from statutory law.

  • Personal property, refers to everything else; movable objects, such as computers, cars, jewelry or intangible rights, such as stocks and shares.
  • Lord King LC was worried that trustees might exploit opportunities to use trust property for themselves instead of looking after it.
  • Universitas Gadjah Mada with its eighteen faculties consists of more than 50 thousand students combination of local students from many regions in Indonesia and also international students around the world.

More infamous are economic torts, which form the basis of labour Law News in some countries by making trade unions liable for strikes, when statute does not provide immunity. In exceptional circumstances defences can apply to specific acts, such as killing in self defence, or pleading insanity. Another example is in the 19th-century English case of R v Dudley and Stephens, which tested a defence of “necessity”. Three crew members and Richard Parker, a 17-year-old cabin boy, were stranded on a raft. They argued it was necessary to kill the cabin boy to preserve their own lives.

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In China and other developing countries there are not sufficient professionally trained people to staff the existing judicial systems, and, accordingly, formal standards are more relaxed. Until the 18th century, Sharia law was practiced throughout the Muslim world in a non-codified form, with the Ottoman Empire’s Mecelle code in the 19th century being a first attempt at codifying elements of Sharia law. Since the mid-1940s, efforts have been made, in country after country, to bring Sharia law more into line with modern conditions and conceptions. In modern times, the legal systems of many Muslim countries draw upon both civil and common law traditions as well as Islamic law and custom. The constitutions of certain Muslim states, such as Egypt and Afghanistan, recognise Islam as the religion of the state, obliging legislature to adhere to Sharia. Saudi Arabia recognises Quran as its constitution, and is governed on the basis of Islamic law.

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It also forms the basis for the law codes of most countries of continental Europe and has played an important role in the creation of the idea of a common European culture (Stein, Roman Law in European History, 2, 104–107). In the 18th century, Adam Smith presented a philosophical foundation for explaining the relationship between law and economics. The discipline arose partly out of a critique of trade unions and U.S. antitrust law.

Law, the discipline and profession concerned with the customs, practices, and rules of conduct of a community that are recognized as binding by the community. Especially since privatisation became popular and took management of services away from public law, private companies doing the jobs previously controlled by government have been bound by varying degrees of social responsibility. Energy, gas, telecomms and water are regulated industries in most OECD countries. Space law is a relatively new field dealing with aspects of international law regarding human activities in Earth orbit and outer space. While at first addressing space relations of countries via treaties, increasingly it is addressing areas such as space commercialisation, property, liability, and other issues.

Anarchist law primarily deals with how anarchism is implemented upon a society, the framework based on decentralized organizations and mutual aid, with representation through a form of direct democracy. A large portion of anarchist ideologies such as anarcho-syndicalism and anarcho-communism primarily focuses on decentralized worker unions, cooperatives and syndicates as the main instrument of society. With notable alumni across the globe, you’re never too far away from the resources and expertise of accomplished law practitioners. We work hard to help our students feel welcome and valued for their unique skills and perspectives. Professor Hampson is a scholar of bankruptcy, insolvency, and the ethics of debt.

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